Alexandria is the second largest city of Egypt, founded by Alexander the great on the site of an ancient fishing village, and with a harbor that was protected by the island of pharos. Only a few submerged fragments remain of the famous lighthouse of pharos, one of the Seven Wonder of the world, erected by Sostratus of Kindos: it was terraced by Sostratus tower, 120 meters tall, and mirrors reflected the light of the fire of resinous wood burning at the top up to hundred miles away
Catacombs of Al-Shuqqafaa
They consist of three tiers at a depth of 100 feet. They dated back to the beginning of the 2nd Century AD. It’s a blend of Pharaonic and Roman art.
[title size=”3″] The Roman Theater [/title]
It’s a small Roman Theater, recently discovered in Kom El-Deka, close of the Greece – Roman Museum. It has 12 marble terraces, and is the only one of its kind in Egypt.
Fort of Qait bey
On the northern tip of the Eastern Harbour, Sultan Qaitbey’s Fort is an Alexandrian landmark. The Fort is on the original site of Pharos, Alexandria’s ancient light- house, built in 279 BC to a height of 125 meters and topped with a statue of Poseidon. Although Pharos was restored at various times it had finally crumbled by the time that the original Fort was built here, in the 148l. Today, the Fort contains a mosque and the Naval Museum and provides wonderful views of the city and the Mediterranean
A 25m. Red granite column constructed in honor of the Emperor Diocetian, originally from the Temple of Serapis, once a magnificent structure rival ling the Soma and the Caesareum. Nearby are subterranean galleries where the sacred Apis bulls were buried, and three sphinxes.
The Rosetta Stone, which held the key to deciphering hieroglyphics, is a fragment of a black stele. The originals now in the British museum in London. The inscription consists of three scripts: 14 lines of hieroglyphs, 32 of demotic Egyptian and 54 in Greek. The Frenchman Francois Champolion was the man who succeeded in deciphering it in 1822.
The Nile Delta
Consists of that large triangle formed by the two branches of the river and the two principal routes, one leading from Cairo to Demyat, and the other which goes to Tanis. The Delta, with its cities of Tanis, Sais and Bubastis, was extremely important in Egyptian history. The landscape is still extraordinary, with its far flung stretches of rice and cotton. Then as now, numerous species of aquatic birds, such as egrets, flamingoes and pelicans gather on Lake Manzala.
Wadi Natrun which is in the eastern desert near the delta is one of the prime attractions for the Christian religious tourist that comes to Egypt. Christianity reached the area with St. Macarius the Great who retreated there in c.330. Other religious men were drawn to the area and a sort of loose community was formed. The community grew in number and became more organized. Thus, a flourishing monastic system was created.
The history of the Wadi and its importance to the Copts goes back to the 4th century. Anchorites inhabited caves around the valley and built monasteries. After the Arab invasion of Egypt, the Khalifa of Moslems in Arabia gave Christian monks in Egypt the amnesty to practice their religion. For that reason, the area became the official residence of the Coptic patriarch. Even now the patriarch is elected from Wadi Natrun monks.
A Coptic monk has to wait for ten years before being considered as a hermit monk. After that time he quests for a cave around the area or digs one for himself. This tradition has been carried out for centuries among Copts. Most of the monasteries in the area have been rebuilt and restored between the 8th and 11th centuries. The early churches had similar Roman/Coptic Architecture. The monasteries were divided on the inside into three sections, including communion, reading catechism, and a basin for sinners to bath
- Monastery of the Romans ( Deir Al baramus ) – Coptic
- Monastery of Anba Beshoy – Coptic
- Monastery of the Syrians – Coptic
- Monastery of St. Macarius – Coptic